Najaf is the city of Imam Ali on the treasure of knowledge and science
Najaf originated in an area with a sanctity and a cultural weight, an area that gained its advantage because of its proximity to the first civilizations of the Middle Euphrates, the civilization of Babylon, Adal and Sommer. It was also characterized by a higher than its surroundings and thus gained the possibility of flood protection in the past. Then it’s located between the plain and the desert, This area was sacred before its supervisor, Imam Ali, was buried if it was passed by prophets and represented the gate through which Islam entered Iraq, and the greatness of the area where Najaf originated, where it is the land of the prophets and the Islamic caliphate and a land loved by God.
The Najaf estate was founded by Sheikh Tusi in the 5th century AH, And a lot of scientists like Mr. Mohsen al-Hakim graduated from it, And Mr. Al-Khoei, And Mr. Sistani.
Historical sources mentioned many virtues of Najaf and there are dozens of novels and hadiths supporting these contents, There are landmarks and shrines in Najaf that have historical importance and social standing, Among them are: Mark hood and saleh, Wadi al-Salam cemetery is one of the largest in the world.
Najafi society is a society of a mix of different nationalities, countries and cities, But they all speak Arabic, The Arabic language and its literature have a special place in Najafi society, Where it dates back to the ignorant era, Throughout history, it continued into the modern era, with flags in Arabic poetry such as al-Jawahiri and Jamal al-Din appearing.
Administratively, after Najaf belonged to Karpala, it became an independent province in the mid-20th century and was joined by Kufa, some cities and many other areas. One of Najaf’s oldest stores is Al-Mashraq, Buraq, Amara and Hawish. One of Najaf’s most important imports, It is religious tourism, which attracts about 50,000 visitors a day on normal days.
Najaf is located at the far southwest end of the northern part of the Iraqi plain, which made it located at the shortest road connected between the fertile plain produced on the one hand and the western plateau on the other, as it is located at the southern edge of the Iraqi desert, 15 km west of the Euphrates, supervising the najaf depression as a dividing point between the pastoral province of Isps and the fertile plain area with river air, Najaf was not central, but a marginal city open to the desert, which was therefore attacked by arabs and Wahhabis, forcing its inhabitants to justify it to protect it.
The beginning of najaf’s emergence
Najaf emerged as a city after the burial of its supervisor Imam Ali (A) in 661 AD, Between Al-Ghari and Najaf (Najaf), which is the high land called the high edge or the tarts, and buried nearby among the white knolls, After finding out the location of his tomb and showing it, a number of loyalists and Alawites lived next to the tomb, and the first appearance of the residences was north of the shrine, which was cleansed in 787 AD, and this date is the beginning of the emergence of Najaf as a city and expanded west and south of the shrine, Najaf was fenced to protect it before the coming of Tusi in 1057 with four walls and when it expanded further, it was fenced in the fifth wall, followed by the sixth and last wall built by the Mamluk Minister Suleiman Pasha in 1788.
Najaf inside its sixth wall
Najaf, inside its sixth wall, was characterized by the formation of four residential neighborhoods called the parties (Al-Mashraq, Architecture, Al-Hawish, Al-Buraq and the houses were built compact, separated by alleys and silvers, and the most important phenomena highlighted in the city for its extremism and distance from water and the heat of its weather are:
Fences: The walls were six and were intended to protect the city from wahhabis and arabs.
Shelters: The rocky layer of Najaf has been able to dig shelters (basements) to get rid of the heat, and the number of (6,046) shelters has been buried, most of which have recently been buried.
The phenomenon of wells and underground channels: These wells have been dug into houses for water …
Asma Al , Najaf
Najaf has taken several names:
Najaf, Najaf or Najaf is a high place around it that does not receive water, which is a common name used by the old and present and there are other names such as: The virgin’s cheek. Tongue Alghari, Wadi Al-Salam, Al-Joudi, Al-Tur al-Baraq and others
.. On Najaf political and civilized forces contributed to the growth of Najaf and others stopped this growth in the era of Bohemian, Ikhani and The Jaliri and Safavid era Najaf began to move towards growth, but Najaf stopped its growth in the Ottoman era and did not develop
The climate of Najaf region is characterized by desert characteristics where the daily heat range is great and the humidity decreases and the great change in the amount of rain falling and the sovereignty of the western wind, and the city of Najaf like other cities is exposed to dust storms and its summer is hot dry and the winter is cold fluctuating rain
Stages of the development of Najaf
Najaf has gone through evolutionary stages:
The first from its inception in 787 AD until 1765, the year that Nabiur put his map from the city and the second stage from 1765 AD to 1924, which is the period during which Najaf took place and settled at the borders of its sixth wall and the stage The third from 1925 to 1958, which is the period during which the city crossed its run-down wall and was slowly visible and the fourth stage 1958 until 1973, which is the period of expansion of Najaf urbanly to the south, east and north phase 5 of In 1973-2003, the phase in which new neighborhoods emerged, the sixth phase, which extends from 2003 to the present, is the renaissance phase, which witnessed Najaf’s expansion and apparent expansion.
Najaf’s population now has reached a population of (one million and nearly a quarter of a million), so Najaf is one of the most important cities in Iraq and includes the population of the city.
Stable old families.
Immigrant families have reached a level of stability.
And newly migrating families from the provinces of Iraq and abroad.
Najafi society is divided into categories:
Al-Sadna and kindergarten service
Clerics and their students
Different dry houses
Najaf receives arrivals from different peoples, including Iranian, Pakistani, Afghan, Hindu, Turkish and other peoples for study, trade or tourism.
The economic concerns in Najaf are determined by local industries such as the manufacture of ornaments, rings, swimming, abayas and mechanical industries, and appeared in Najaf industrial areas and industrial neighborhoods and interested in the city by trade and laid the foundations of religious tourism and surrounded by najaf agricultural areas in the low najaf, al-Tahreeh, Abu Sakhir, Al-Mashhab, Kufa, Haidariya and others, These areas provide the city with its need for agricultural products.
The economic basis of Najaf depends on industrial function, as many religious cities rely on their religious function to rely on industry or trade, first of all, it is the industry that brings the city income from outside, followed by the commercial function and then the religious function.
Religious services provided by Najaf:
Najaf offers religious services locally, regionally and internationally, including the services of the agents assigned, guides and preachers, as well as visiting the disinfectant shrine, burial services and teaching services for iraqi and foreign students of the estate.
The reference in Najaf:
It consists of the supreme authority, the agents in charge scattered throughout Iraq, the financial accreditors, the scientific estate, the speeches of the Husseini pulpit, the public libraries belonging to the reference and religious schools.
The reference is a doctrinal entity that occupies a great place, Because it connects The Shiite society with close relations and obliges the individual to the islamic rules based on the fatwa of the greatest hardworker and the references they are fair to achieve reason, diligence, justice, wisdom and awareness.
The scientific estate in Najaf was linked in 1056 when Sheikh Abu Jaafar Mohammed bin al-Hassan al-Tusi emigrated to Najaf and as soon as he dissolved Najaf, it founded its scientific possession, which teaches religious sciences to Hawzian students such as religious sciences, origins, interpretation, hadith, beliefs, etc.
Najaf also performs religious services while preparing burial supplies for the dead, which are brought from different parts of Iraq and abroad.
The burial was in the courtyard of Imam Ali (a) and in the courtyards of the dish and the dish until 1793 was not tiled and when it was wet in this year the burial continued in it and in the quarters, as well as the burial appeared outside the dish and in its surroundings and in houses and cemeteries. The burial appeared after the wall in the cemetery of Wadi Al-Salam and then became a clearly defined cowardice after the sixth wall and that the area of the cemetery wadi al-Salam reached 2013 (380) hectares and with that constitutes 12% of the area of the city of Najaf, but today the cemetery has expanded more and extended northward, but the age of the cemetery of Wadi al-Salam since it was built above the shrine of imam until the day 1227 AD and the age of burial after the construction of the first wall is 1113 years and the age of burial after the fifth wall is 1397 M
The most important shrines and shrines in Najaf:
Shrines and shrines are of great importance in Najaf because of the city’s religious services. It includes the mausoleum of Imam Ali (a) and the shrine of Camille bin Ziad (a) a sahabi of Imam Ali’s companions (a) and the Shrine of Safi Safa, located on the western side of Najaf near the shrine of Imam Zain al-Abidin
The shrine of the Prophet of God Adam, Noah, and the shrine of the prophets of God Hood and Saleh (p) the shrine of Zahra bint al-Hassan (p) in (Al-Hawish) the shrine of Ruqaya bint al-Hassan (p) at the end of Al-Khorang Street, the shrine of Sayyid Ali bin al-Hassan (p) in the Sea of Najaf, the shrine of Ammana Bint al-Hassan (a) in the Hawish region.
The denominators are:
Imam Mahdi Shrine (Aj) Amara Area
Imam Mahdi Shrine (Aj) Wadi al-Salam
And the shrine of Imam Sadiq
The place of Ras al-Hussein (p) tenderness
As for the mosques, approximately 35 mosques were built in Najaf, the most important of which are Imran bin Shaheen Mosque, Al-Khadra Mosque, Tusi, Hindi, Hanana and Al-Jawahiri Mosque. etc
The city of Najaf is spread by 13 Husseinia, the most important of which are Husseinia Haj Abdul Rasul, Shoshtria, Rahbawi, Fatimid Husseinia, Hosseinia al-Sharif and others.
There are 34 religious schools in Najaf, the most important of which are al-Sahn al-Haidariya school, Salimiya schools, cover detector, textures, al-Rawi, Akhon, Yazdi, Badkobi, Hindi, Al-Alawia, Al-Mardawia and others.
Libraries in Najaf:
Najaf is the world’s bookcase and the capital of manuscripts and libraries with types:
Official, civil and private libraries (official number 2, And the eligibility number is 6 And private 37 bookstores)
4 religious school libraries
Libraries of culture and knowledge institutions number 4
Libraries of 3 specialized studies centers
Libraries of cultural associations number 3
3 forum libraries
10 university and college libraries
Universities in Najaf are governmental and civil.
Government such as Kufa University, founded in 1987, technical college and technical institute, and there are a number of civil colleges headed by the Islamic University
Islamic University of Najaf:
The Islamic University was founded in 2004 in Najaf as a prestigious scientific edifice that remained for years in its old building in …. Najaf even in a year ….. She moved to her new building, which is comparable to the finest universities, which is well established, elegant, high and courtyard, and planning that it is planted in a good land…. His branches are high to be abundant shadows that fulfill generations after generations knowledge, culture, literature and love for Islam, and this planting preaches the nobleness of manners and the balm of those who were burdened by the days and missed the opportunities to upgrade this satisfied university became touching space at its height note and as if it was shown by the mark Sadr al-Din Al-Kabangi after Najaf a banner of light and led by Dr. Ammar Abdul Amir al-Salami care with effort, giving, effort and uninterrupted night.
That the university today is a highly important scientific institution with a high edifice locally, regionally and internationally
The Islamic University now includes in 2021 (8) colleges and two branches, The first branch in Babylon, And the second branch in Diwaniyah
The Faculty of Law includes the Department of Law
The Faculty of Education includes the Department of English Language – Department of Islamic Education – Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.
The Faculty of Technical Engineering includes the Department of Computer Technology Engineering, Department of Refrigeration Technology Engineering, Department of Construction engineering.
Faculty of Dentistry
Faculty of Pharmacy
The Faculty of Islamic Sciences includes the Department of Qur’anic and Linguistic Studies and the Department of Islamic Thought
Faculty of Media and includes the Department of Journalism
Medical Technical College, It includes the department of medical laboratories and the department of radiology
Babylon branch includes five sections:
Qur’anic and linguistic studies
Department of Medical Laboratories
Department of Computer Technology Engineering